Formation: Highway to the Learning Zone

As few weeks ago, one of my Kōtuku colleagues, Katherine Bosworth did a presentation at one of our video meetings about our comfort zones. Katherine explained a concept from George Ambler about the importance of stepping outside our comfort zones.

The idea is that we only learn, grow, and develop our capabilities when we step out of our comfort zone.  In order to accomplish this growth, we need to move into the learning zone (we also need to be careful not to enter the danger zone, that area where we’re over-stretched, stressed, and unable to actually lead.)

dangerzone pic.jpg

Her presentation was great, and got me thinking about comfort zones, learning zones, and danger zones. (It also got me thinking about the Kenny Loggins song from Top Gun, but that’s another story…)


I think I loved Katherine’s talk so much because I related to quite strongly. The comfort zone is so nice and lovely and well, comfortable, it’s where we might instinctively like to stay. It’s a place where we feel in control, where we feel confident in the set of skills and behaviours we have and depend on. But usually nothing really new happens in the comfort zone, it’s a place of auto-pilot, of going through the motions, maybe a place you’re stuck. It’s hard to learn new things, and even harder to grow and challenge yourself if you stay in your comfort zone.

Katherine’s presentation came back to me again last week when I reflected on a couple conversations I’d had and things that had happened at work.

At work we have a great programme we’ve been doing this year we’ve called “professional curiosity.” Every couple weeks, each team, or person from the team, takes a turn selecting a topic or reading to discuss, then those who are interested come along to a discussion. As someone who enjoys keeping up professionally and hearing what others are thinking I love these sessions. But last week’s was especially interesting because the topic was professional development generally and it attracted a large and engaged group. We discussed the need for funding to travel and meet our colleagues around the country and internationally, opportunities to present our work at conferences, and attend workshops and other trainings that aren’t available in Wellington. But we also discussed the kinds of professional development that aren’t about traveling somewhere, but are about putting yourself out there, and making an effort beyond the business as usual part of doing our jobs. These are often the professional development activities that can have a significant impact on our own growth and development, and they’re usually the kinds of developments that put us outside our comfort zone.

For me, a significant amount of my professional development hasn’t happened at those international travel and training opportunities, but in the work prior to those, where I had to step out of my comfort zone, stretch myself and learn something new. It’s those moments at work when I noticed something I wanted to learn or identified a project I wanted to get involved in and swallowed my fear and asked to get involved, proposed a project, or asked someone I didn’t know that well for help or advice. Ironically, I think it was all that on the job development, that made it easier for me to find support and funding for some of the farther afield professional development opportunities, then those opportunities broadened my horizons further and prepared me for the next steps.

One of the other valuable professional developments for me has been my involvement with professional associations. Over the years I’ve found myself doing everything from designing my first website while in library school for a student group, to organizing and leading a silent auction, helping develop and organize workshops, being on conference programme committees, editing journals, developing projects, to most recently chairing a regional committee and sitting on a national council. None of these were activities where I knew what I was doing when I started. They all required some degree of stepping outside my comfort zone, but they have also been amazing learning and development opportunities. And maybe most importantly over time and with practice I’ve gained some skills and become more comfortable being in an uncomfortable place.

When I was a student and first starting out in the library and archives profession I used to think that all the people who seemed to know each other and were involved in all the activities where in some sort of special club, and that you had to wait until someone invited you to join. But the truth of the matter is that was probably an invention and defense mechanism on my part. As soon as I volunteered to be a member of one committee I was welcomed on board. In almost all of my subsequent opportunities it’s been through putting my hand up in one way or another, even if it was scary asking to be involved, and even if I really didn’t know what I was doing when I started.

That’s one of the things I’ve been thinking more about recently. I think we (or at least I) want things to be easy. We kinda want to wait for someone to invite us to be part of an activity, to tell us we’re ready to step up for the next challenge or opportunity, to explain to us how to go about accomplishing our next goal. Part of growing is being able to step back and figure out the steps you need to take to get where you want to go and not waiting until some magical third party tells you what to do. In many ways once we have been successful at something, once we’ve developed a bit of a track record people will start asking you to be involved, or suggesting you for new opportunities, but if you really want to grow, and you know what capabilities you need to develop, you can’t wait for someone to hand them to you. You’re the only one that can do the learning and growing and it does appear that the only way you can do that is stepping outside your comfort zone.

comfort zone.jpg


This is especially true if we’re trying to lead, or learn how to lead. Hopefully we want to lead because we want to make a difference. We want to lead because we want to make things better, to be effective, and that means to some extent we need to learn how to do something new or differently, something that not everyone will support straight away. The only way we’re going to get comfortable with that is paradoxically learning to be comfortable leaving our comfort zone, testing our edge, and getting used to discomfort.

Sometimes I’m a bit bemused at myself that it’s taken me so long to figure this out. Or that I was so worried about wanting to be completely ready, completely accomplished before I set myself a new challenge. I’m also aware that there are both personal and structural social and cultural reasons for at least some of this, which is one of the reasons that I continue to take inspiration from and connect myself in anyway I can to projects like Tusk and Kōtuku. Being in a place of discomfort is easier if you at least know there are people supporting you. This year so far hasn’t always been comfortable, but I have been growing and learning, and honestly how can we create change without that?

Jess Moran

Pay the sisters the same as the misters

This piece is an adaptation of a short talk I gave as part of an Art+Feminism event, held at Mairangi Arts Centre in April.


Pay the sisters the same as the misters. It’s a simple concept – that women should be paid equally to men. It’s the law, and has been since the Equal Pay Act came into existence in 1972. But here we are, 45 years later, and women are still earning less than men.

I found it difficult to find any recent research on gender pay imbalance which directly relates to the arts and culture sector. Museums Aotearoa conducts general remuneration research for the museum and gallery sector, and a Ministry for Culture and Heritage report from 2012 looks at the economic impact of the arts sector in NZ, and outlines some salary and employment related statistics. The report indicates that in 2012 the average salary in the arts sector stood at $36,300 which was less than the average salary overall in NZ, which at the time stood at $49,800[1]. Using this data as an indication, as a sector we’re earning less than the NZ average, regardless of gender. The sector also has a high proportion of people working part-time, and around 50% of people working in the creative and performing arts sector indicated that their work in the arts is not their primary income. While I don’t have the concrete evidence to back this up, I would say that given there haven’t been any dramatic funding increases in the sector, it’s likely that the disparity between arts sector salary and general salary remains the same today.  It seems clear that we don’t go into the arts and culture sector for the money.

Comparing salaries within the arts and culture sector can be also be difficult. This sector is relatively small in New Zealand, so it can be difficult to find a position which is “the same” as what you are doing. Our institutions differ in size and structure, and jobs differ accordingly. This is where Pay Equity comes in. Pay equity is where women and men are paid equally for jobs which have the same level of skill, education, experience and other factors, even if the jobs are not technically ‘the same’. For example, if a man and a woman are both working front of house in the same gallery, then they will be paid the same wage. This is equal pay. However, if one woman is doing one job at an institution, and a man is doing the equivalent job at another institution, with comparable responsibilities and education required to perform the duties of the position, they should be paid the same. This is pay equity.

In 2017, the Ministry for Women released a report on the gender pay imbalance in New Zealand. They cite that 80% of the gender pay gap is driven by unexplained factors including unconscious bias towards women.[2] There is also evidence indicating that the proportion of the pay gap that is “unexplained” becomes greater the more a woman is paid.[3] Unconscious bias toward women affects the ways we are treated in the workplace as well as how much we are paid.

So, the cold hard facts:

  • New Zealand women, on average, are paid an average of 13% less than man.
  • Māori women earn 13% less than Pākehā women, and 23% less than a man of any ethnicity.
  • Asian women get paid 10% less than Pākehā women, and 20% less than men of any ethnicity.
  • Pasifika women are the worst off, earning 20% less than Pākehā women, and 28% less than a man of any ethnicity. [4]

In 2016 women's average weekly earnings were 61.1% of men’s. In dollar terms, that means women are earning an average of $432 a week compared tomen earning and average of $707: a difference of $275 per week and $14,300 per year.[5] To put this into perspective, I did some googling to see what I might be able to buy with that cash. For $275 I could get my hair fully cut and coloured at my hairdresser in Ponsonby. The average Kiwi family of four spends about that on their weekly shop. I could rent a one bedroom unit in Te Atatu for $260 per week. For the full $14,300 per year I could buy a 2012 Toyota Rav4 on TradeMe. In real terms, there’s a lot we could all be doing with that extra cash. This might seem like an oversimplification, but the gender pay gap is a reality and women are financially disadvantaged by it in very real terms. In terms of hours worked, we could say women should work 13% less days in a year, effectively going on leave from the 14th of November onwards.

The numbers make it glaringly obvious – women are paid less than men. It’s unacceptable, and it’s time to get pissed off and do something about it. But what can we do?  Given that I am not in a position to hire people or set their salaries, I have considered some ways that I can effect change despite my lack of institutional power. Firstly, I think we need more transparency and more conversation about pay scales and salaries within our sector. If I don’t know what my male counterparts are getting paid, how do I know if I am getting a fair deal? I would also ask that Museums Aotearoa make their general information on remuneration public, so that women can make a call on what the sector standard for their salary is. Knowing the base line ofsalaries allows women to establish whether they are being offered a low or high starting point, and it gives a solid grounding for negotiating a better deal.

Negotiating pay is also something we can work on individually. I believe some mentoring in this area would be hugely useful.. Negotiating in our sector comes with baggage. There is already limited money to go around, so asking for more can feel selfish when that money could be spent elsewhere. I believe this attitude is holding us back. Negotiating for a higher salary isn’t about being greedy, it’s about being paid appropriately for the work that we do. In terms of women negotiating for higher pay, a recent study from the United States indicates that women are as likely as men to negotiate for a higher salary, but that men are more 25% more likely to be successful in those negotiations.[6] I wonder if we had more women in positions of leadership and governance, and particularly more women of colour, would we see higher salaries and more successful negotiations for women?

Lastly, knowledge is power. We need to arm ourselves with resources, so we know what we’re talking about. I’ve made a list of resources at the end of this piece. They’re easy to understand, and explain not only the statistics, but why the pay imbalance is happening. By empowering ourselves with knowledge we can start asking questions about our pay, and advocate for ourselves and other women in the sector.

When I attended the Treat Her Right campaign video filming, there were women taking part who had been activists since 1972, the year the Equal Pay Bill came into action in New Zealand. That’s 45 years. If we continue at the same rate of change we have been tracking at, women won’t reach pay equity for another 45 years. Consider this a call to arms! I don’t want to wait until I’m 75 to be paid fairly. It’s time for a change. It’s time to pay the sisters the same as the misters.

Naiomi Murgatroyd

Useful resources:





[5] (accessed 14/3/17)


Tuakana: Martin Lewis

For our first Tuakana of the year, I'd like to introduce one of the backbones of our mahi here at Te Papa: Martin Lewis. Martin is one of the librarians who work really closely with my (Matariki) team and has one of the most impressive talents for recall that I've ever seen. With every little query we have, Martin has suggestions pouring at us before we've even begun. Aside from being an absolute whizzbang gem of a librarian, he's a genuinely kind and warm person. I've held numerous positions and internships at Te Papa over the past 8 years and Martin's friendly face and supportive ear has been a constant, so thank you Martin. I'm sure there are many invisible virtual claps occurring right now as people read this.

In five words, describe your role in the sector. 

Connecting people, knowledge & things (mostly stolen from our teams Purpose statement, but so true)

What is it about the sector that you love?

Meeting history, interacting with the things that were ‘there’ at a point of time or event.  It’s one thing to know the stories of a time long gone, but to see (and better yet hold) something that was present at X moment is powerful.  It is even more powerful when you are connecting people to these stories, especially if they have a direct connection.  And then being able to share that experience and the stories is what gets me up in the morning. 

What have been some challenges in your career?

Stereotypes around Library/information management – ‘oh you work in a library/museum, must be great to read all those books/look at the exhibitions everyday’ or ‘why do we need a library/do information management in the age of Mr Google (Or Trump ‘info age’)’.  That sort of thing is always fun to encounter, you have to see it as an opportunity to bring people on board.  Always comes down to showing your worth to your organisation/customer base – being agile and adapting to new technology or emerging trends and fashions is important.  Kim Tairi, University Librarian at AUT calls it ‘Be like Bowie’.  David Bowie changed and moved with the times, always reinventing himself and staying awesome.  Keeping on the edge of the knowledge wave like this is our biggest challenge, especially when you don’t have limitless funds. 

What challenges can you see moving forward?

Staying relevant, funding and storage.  Doubt I need to expand on that because I imagine everyone in the GLAM sector is nodding right now!

What do you think people in the early stages of their careers can offer the sector?

New folks bring new ideas and ways of doing things, ideas, research, technology application and viewpoints that could be outside our current sphere.  Early stage folk are critical in staying in the game, it is important for people to challenge assumptions us ol’ timers may have made, open the doors we closed because of our experience ‘back then’.  (also remind us when we keep slipping into old patterns to deal with new issues)  Sure sometimes there will be good reason to not revisit certain things or do things the same way for 150 years but if you don’t have a fresh pair of eyes on it you risk just slowly travelling down a well-worn rut to irrelevance.  Combine that with they’re the future of the sector, they’re damn important!  

What is your spirit animal?

Typical boy response was a Wolf.  Typical Research librarian, googled up a quiz and became a Bear…  I’d be happy with eitherWould Bowie count as a spirit guide? (Ed note: Bowie absolutely counts as a spirit guide.)

Flight Path - Salote Tawale

Here is a podcast.

The podcast is me hanging out and recording things with my friends who are artists.

It’s called ‘Flight Path’ because its about the different trajectories, influences and motivations of my artist friends. I also like birds. Especially the albatross who, with its massive wingspan, goes on crazy long distance flights during which it cries salty tears as it filters the sea water it drinks. Those salty tears are realised in the tukutuku pattern Roimata Tōroa. He tauira hei hokinga mahara nē? Taking off, going the distance and remembering where you’re from: Flight Path (insert classic kiwi BBQ reggae song about knowing you’re roots…?). ‘Albatross’ is also a Fleetwood Mac song, just like ‘Tusk’ – bit of a stretch there.

Being a Māori artist/curator is like being a player/coach. Sometimes you’re playing and sometimes you’re on the side line cheering and figuring out a game plan for your team. This podcast is unashamedly part of my game plan.

The first two episodes of Flight Path have been generously supported financially and morally by the ‘Emerging Curators Programme’ facilitated through The Physics Room, Blue Oyster and Creative New Zealand.

Flight Path Episode One:

Salote Tawale

Salote and I became such good friends during the Indigenous Visual and Digital Arts Residency in Banff, Canada that although we’d only just met, people thought we’d known each other for years. I even started to get annoyed at her like a sister because I was always waiting for her. We made some art together, including recreating scenes from ‘The Shining’ at The Banff Hotel, after High Tea of course. A favourite Banff moment is when she thought we were getting attacked by elks and she sprinted past me in her iconic blue and yellow mountaineering down jacket, yelling in her loud as Aussie accent ‘Get inside! Quick! Quick!’. Once safe and panting inside, some polite Canadians quietly told us that the hoofed animal tuned out to be a super tame deer. Aside from being a kind and hilarious person, Salote is a considerate artist who makes dope work. Proper credentials here

Bridget Reweti